What is the correct sequence of steps during infection of plants by nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
42. As fuels wood and coal ________.A) are the main fuel sources in industrialized countries today.B) are both formed from living or fossil plants.C) are both formed under pressure deep in the Earth.D) are sustainable as they are even now being made at high rates.43. Molecular phylogenies show all land plants are a monophyletic group. This suggests ________.A) there were many different transitions from aquatic to terrestrial habitatsB) wind-pollinated plants arose firstC) land plants have undergone a diversification since they first colonized terrestrial habitatsD) there was a single transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats44. Which of these time intervals based on plant fossils came last (most recently)?A) extensive growth of gymnosperm forestsB) Silurian-Devonian explosion with fossils of plant lineages containing most of the major morphological innovationsC) colonization of land by early liverworts and mossesD) rise and diversification of angiospermsE) carboniferous swamps with giant horsetails and lycophytes45. Why are seedless vascular plants considered paraphyletic rather than monophyletic?A) Some of the groups within the seedless vascular plants are more closely related to each other than to other groups (such as Lycophyta).B) They share a more recent common ancestor with seeded plants than they do with the non-vascular plants.C) All of the groups contained within the seedless vascular plants do not have the same ancestor.D) The group includes their common ancestor but also the seeded descendants of that same ancestor.46. Which set contains the most closely related terms?A) megasporangium megaspore pollen ovuleB) microsporangium microspore egg ovaryC) megasporangium megaspore egg ovuleD) microsporangium microspore carpel ovary47. In the process of alternation of generations the ________.A) sporophyte is haploid and produces gametesB) sporophyte is diploid and produces sporesC) gametophyte is haploid and produces sporesD) gametophyte is diploid and produces gametesE) spores unite to form a zygote48. Where are you LEAST likely to see green algae?A) as pink snow in the mountains in summerB) growing symbiotically with fungi in lichens or with some invertebrate animalsC) growing independently on dry rock in meadowsD) growing independently on wet rock in ponds and lakesE) floating in seas and oceans49. When a mosquito infected with Plasmodium first bites a human the Plasmodium ________.A) gametes fuse forming an oocystB) cells infect the human liver cellsC) cells cause lysing of the human red blood cellsD) oocyst undergoes meiosis50. Carbon dioxide enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the ________.A) cuticleB) epidermal trichomesC) stomaD) phloemE) walls of guard cells51. Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?A) root capB) root hairsC) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stemD) storage rootsE) sections of the root that have secondary xylem52. When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution and water enters the cell via osmosis the volume of the cell increases until it bursts. This does NOT happen to plant cells because ________.A) they have large central vacuoles which provide abundant space for storage of incoming waterB) the composition of their plasma membranes differs from that of animal-cell plasma membranes in a way that provides much greater strengthC) they have cell walls which prevent the entry of water by osmosisD) they have cell walls which provide pressure to counteract the pressure of the incoming waterE) certain gated channel proteins embedded in their plasma membranes open as osmotic pressure decreases allowing excess water to leave the cell53. Compared to a cell with few aquaporins in its membrane a cell containing many aquaporins will ________.A) have a faster rate of osmosisB) have a lower water potentialC) have a higher water potentialD) have a faster rate of active transportE) be flaccid54. Which cells in a root form a protective barrier to the vascular system where all materials must move through the symplast?A) pericycleB) cortexC) epidermisD) endodermisE) exodermis55. You are conducting an experiment on plant growth. You take a plant fresh from the soil that weighs 5 kilograms (kg). Then you dry the plant overnight and determine the dry weight to be 1 kg. Of this dry weight how much would you expect to be made up of oxygen carbon and hydrogen?A) 1 gramB) 4 gramsC) 40 gramsD) 960 gramsE) 1 kg56. Which of the following statements about essential nutrients are TRUE? Essential nutrients ________.I. are necessary for plant growth and reproductionII. are required for a specific structure or metabolic functionIII. cannot be synthesized by a plantIV. are produced by symbiotic bacteriaA) I and IVB) II III and IVC) I II and IIID) I II III and IV57. Which criteria allow biologists to divide chemicals into macronutrients and micronutrients?A) molecular weight of the element or compoundB) the quantities of each required by plantsC) how they are used in metabolismD) whether or not they are essential for plant growth58. A mineral deficiency is likely to affect older leaves more than younger leaves if the ________.A) mineral is a micronutrientB) mineral is very mobile within the plantC) mineral is required for chlorophyll synthesisD) mineral is a macronutrientE) older leaves are in direct sunlight59.Which of the following elements correctly pairs an essential element in plants with its function?A) nitrogencomponent of nucleic acids proteins hormones coenzymesB) magnesiumcomponent of nucleic acids phospholipids ATPC) phosphoruscofactor functioning in protein synthesisD) sulfurcomponent of DNA; activates some enzymes60.Why is nitrogen fixation an essential process?A) Fixed nitrogen is often the limiting factor in plant growth.B) Nitrogen fixation is very expensive in terms of metabolic energy.C) Nitrogen-fixing capacity can be genetically engineered.D) None of the above61.Nitrogen fixation is a process that ________.A) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materialsB) converts ammonia to ammoniumC) releases nitrate from the rock substrateD) converts nitrogen gas into ammoniaE) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials and converts ammonia to ammonium62.Which of the following if used as a fertilizer would be most immediately available for plant uptake?A) NH3B) N2C) CN2H2D) NO3-63. In what way do nitrogen compounds differ from other minerals needed by plants? Only nitrogen ________.A) can be lost from the soilB) can be provided by symbiotic bacteriaC) is needed for protein synthesisD) is held by cation exchange capacity in the soilE) can be absorbed by root hairs64. What is the correct sequence of steps during infection of plants by nitrogen-fixing bacteria?A) Rhizobia release Nod factors; roots release flavonoids; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.B) Rhizobia release flavonoids; roots release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.C) Roots release flavonoids; rhizobia release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; nodule forms; infection thread grows into the root cortex.D) Roots release flavonoids; rhizobia release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.E) Nodule forms; infection thread grows into the root cortex; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; rhizobia release flavonoids and Nod factors.65. Carnivorous plants have evolved mechanisms that trap and digest small animals. The products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant’s supply of ________.A) waterB) carbohydratesC) lipids and steroidsD) nitrogen nutrient and other minerals66. Which of the following statements about nitrogen fixation in root nodules is correct?A) The plant contributes the nitrogenase enzyme.B) The process is relatively inexpensive in terms of ATP costs.C) Leghemoglobin helps maintain a low oxygen concentration within the nodule.D) The process tends to deplete nitrogen compounds in the soil.E) The bacteria of the nodule are autotrophic.67. Most of the dry mass of a plant is derived from ________.A) NO3-and CO2B) K+and CO2C) PO4and K+D) H2O and K+E) H2O and CO2
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