PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz

PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1. ___________ was the founder of the Boston Vocational Bureau and is sometimes referred to as the “Father of Guidance”.
a. Clifford Beers
b. Frank Parsons
c. John Dewey
d. Jesse B. Davis

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2. ____________, a former Yale student, advocated for better mental health facilities after his own struggles with mental illness and witnessing, first-hand, deplorable conditions in mental institutions. He helped to start a mental health movement that reformed the treatment of the mentally ill.
a. Clifford Beers
b. Frank Parsons
c. John Dewey
d. Jesse B. Davis

3. E. G. Williamson’s ___________ point of view of counseling, as well as the major tenets of Freudian psychoanalysis, was challenged by Carl Rogers in the publication Counseling and Psychotherapy which illustrates his ____________ approach.
a. person-centered; client-centered
b. client-centered; counselor-centered
c. counselor-centered; client-centered
d. counselor-centered; directive

4. The passage of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) provided funds for the training/ education of _________ counselors.
a. school
b. mental health
c. rehabilitation
d. military

5. Behavioral counseling gained importance through ____________ publication ____________, in which he focused on learning (instead of insight) as the root of change.
a. Carl Rogers’; Counseling and Psychotherapy
b. John Krumboltz’s; Revolution in Counseling
c. C. Gilbert Wrenn’s; Counselor in a Changing World
d. Frank Parsons’; Choosing a Vocation

6. Psychologists may earn all but one of the following advanced degrees in psychology in order to be eligible for licensure:
a. a doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.)
b. a doctor of education (Ed. D.)
c. a doctor of psychology (Psy.D.)
d. a medical degree (M. D.)

7. Graduates of CACREP accredited programs have advantages over graduates from nonaccredited programs EXCEPT in:
a. obtaining admission to accredited counselor education doctoral programs
b. meeting the educational requirements for counselor licensure and certification
c. learning more about counseling theories
d. obtaining employment as a counselor

8. An accredited counselor education master’s program according to CACREP standards must have all of the following EXCEPT ___________________.PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz
a. have three full-time faculty members assigned to the academic unit in counselor education
b. be a minimum of 2 full academic years in length with a minimum of 48 semester hours required of all students
c. provide instruction in each of eight common core areas
d. require students to complete 2,000 hours of supervised internships beginning with the practicum

9. One of the types of professional credentials counselors may obtain which is considered prestigious is_________.
a. transaction
b. inspection
c. certification
d. registration

10. Of the four main attribution models that counselors use on either a conscious or unconscious basis, the one where clients are held “responsible only for solving their problems but not for causing them” is the ______________ model.
a. medical
b. moral model
c. compensatory
d. enlightenment

11. When there is a potential conflict between a counselor’s employer and a counselor’s client, the counselor should __________.
a. first protect the right of the client
b. first serve the interest of the employer
c. ask a colleague to settle the conflict
d. immediately quit his or her job

12. According to Van Hoose and Paradise, the stage of ethical reasoning where concern for the individual is primary is __________ .
a. societal orientation
b. principle or conscience orientation
c. institutional orientation
d. individual orientation

13. Ethics that are based on a set of obligations that focus on finding socially and historically appropriate answers to the question: “What shall I do?” are called ________ ethics.
a. principle
b. virtue
c. absolute
d. relativistic

14. The law is generally ___________ toward professional codes of ethics and toward counseling in general.
a. hostile
b. supportive
c. neutral
d. “b” and “c” but not “a”

15. The Iowa Law Review Note of 1971 did which of the following ________________.
a. established the need to break confidentiality in order to prevent harm (duty to warn and protect)
b. first recognized counseling as a distinct profession
c. clarified the role of counselors in the mental health profession
d. established that communications between a licensed psychotherapist and their patients are privileged

16. Many Hispanic Americans tend to see psychological problems as _______.
a. unimportant
b. similar to physical problems
c. in the mind
d. matters of pride

17. In some cases, self-disclosure may be facilitated with Chinese Americans through __________. a. direct, open questioning
b. educationally oriented counseling
c. silence
d. assertive challenging

18. Arab Americans as a group usually differ significantly from traditional Americans in that they emphasize:PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz
a. social stability and the collective over the individual.
b. social instability and the collective over the individual.
c. social stability and the individual over the collective.
d. social instability and the individual over the collective.

19. Which is not an ethnographic variable used in defining culture:
a. nationality
b. Language
c. Religion
d. Gender

20. It is essential for counselors to be sensitive to cultures in which of these areas:
a. Knowledge of the worldviews of culturally different clients
b. Skills necessary for work with culturally different clients
c. Awareness of ones own personal worldview
d. All of the above

21. An effective way of counseling men includes ____________.
a. emotional disclosures
b. cognitive discussions
c. systematic desensitization
d. sexual identity discussions
22. The majority culture, which professional helpers represent, has a __________ view of persons who are not heterosexual
a. mostly neutral
b. generally positive
c. predominantly negative
d. none of the above

23. The definition of spirituality can include __________.
a. a concept of the divine or a force greater than oneself
b. a sense of playfulness
c. a sense of meaning
d. all of the above

24. Counseling is a _________________ phenomenon.
a. section-wide
b. state-wide
c. city-wide
d. world-wide

25. Historically, counseling older adults has been a ____________________ and neglected area of the profession.
a. misunderstood
b. lacking
c. worldwide
d. failure

You Can Do It

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) UNIT 2
1. Total liking, according to research conducted by Mehrabian, primarily involves __________ liking.
a. facial
b. physical
c. verbal
d. vocall

2. The degree to which a counselor is perceived as knowledgeable and informed about his or her specialty is known as ___________.PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz
a. trustworthiness
b. attractiveness
c. expertness
d. dedication

3. Counselors who have developed their self-awareness skills are likely to do all of the following EXCEPT _________.
a. accurately assess both their own needs and the needs of their clients
b. communicate clearly
c. convey immediate trustworthiness
d. be in touch with their own values, thoughts, and feelings

4. The question “why” usually is not used in counseling because __________.
a. it puts clients on the defensive
b. it connotes disapproval
c. it leads to self-disclosure
d. “a” and “b” but not “c”

5. According to Carl Rogers, empathy involves the skills of ______ and ______.
a. rapport; support
b. feeling; talking
c. perception; communication
d. awareness; acknowledgement

6. Making oneself known to another person by revealing personal information is known as __________.
a. ego disclosure
b. self disclosure
c. reverse empathy
d. countertransference

7. Immediacy in counseling is best used in each of the following situations EXCEPT _________.
a. where there is a question of trust
b. where there is tension
c. where there is a relaxed relationship
d. where there is counterdependency

8. Humor in the counseling process is ____________.
a. only appropriate if client-initiated
b. used to build bridges between counselors and clients
c. often leads to an awareness of “ah-ha” and a clearer perception of the situation
d. “b” and “c” but not “a”

9. Confrontation often involves the use of the phrase ____________.
a. “You’re not living up to your contract”
b. “You said _____, but look ______”
c. “Why _____?”
d. “Help me understand”

10. Effective contracts in counseling include all EXCEPT the following ______________.
a. client con words (“try” and “maybe”)
b. a focus on change
c. concreteness
d. personal responsibility

11. All of the following factors, EXCEPT _________, may promote resistance to closure of a counseling relationship?
a. loneliness
b. unresolved grief and need gratification
c. fear of having to be self-reliant
d. realistic focused goals
12. Which of the following are considered client resistance to closure?
a. The client asks for more time at the end of a session
b. The client develops a new and long-term problem
c. The client reaches an agreed upon goal but asks for more appointments
d. all of the above

13. The “five Ds” for unsuccessfully dealing with loss and departure include all EXCEPT the following ____________.
a. delight in what you have gained and what lies ahead of you
b. distort your experience by overglorifying it
c. denigrate your activities and relationships
d. deny the loss

14. The ultimate goal in counseling is for counselors to become ________ to the client and for the clients to become _________ on themselves.
a. consistent with; necessary to
b. open with; important to
c. less important; more dependent
d. invisible; meaningless to

15. Premature closure should ___________.
a. never be considered either the client’s or the counselor’s fault
b. is inevitable
c. be treated with a cavalier attitude that the client has made an unfortunate choice
d. none of the above

16. The most basic of the ego defense mechanisms is ___________.
a. repression
b. displacement
c. rationalization
d. reaction formation

17. Psychoanalysis has the following limitations EXCEPT for___________.
a. it is time-consuming
b. it is expensive
c. it emphasizes development
d. it is deterministic
18. According to Adler, a healthy style of life focuses on three main tasks: ________.
a. social order, work, and sexuality
b. society, work and sexuality
c. contributing to society, family interconnectedness, and spirituality
d. coping with life, courage, working in society

19. All of the following are ordinal birth positions except:
a. first born
b. youngest
c. third child
d. only child

20. Person-centered theory is also referred to as _________.
a. self theory
b. unconditional theory
c. affective theory
d. individual theory

21. Reality therapy emphasizes the elimination of ____________.
a. blame/punishment
b. behavioral consequences
c. client responsibility
d. the past

22. The first basic step of reality therapy is ____________.
a. establish a relationship
b. evaluate client relationship
c. focus on present behavior
d. develop a plan

23. General systems theory introduced the idea of _____________.
a. linear causality
b. scapegoating
c. circular causality
d. psychosocial systems
24. According to Bowen family therapy, partners in a marriage when stressed tend to _________.
a. separate
b. individuate
c. triangulate
d. frustrate

25. __________ family counselors “map” the family they are working with in their minds.PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz
a. Strategic
b. Experiential
c. Structural
d. Narrative?
Answer Keys


The Unit Examination
The unit examination contains 25 multiple choice questions, as well as a writing assignment.
Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. The university utilizes the following grading system:
A = 90% – 100% correct
B = 80% – 89% correct
C = 70% – 79% correct
D = 60% – 69% correct
F = 59% and below correct 4 grade points
3 grade points
2 grade points 1 grade point
0 grade points
Completing Unit Three Examination
Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thoroughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each unit and follow the suggestions in the mastering the course content section of the syllabus.
This unit examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the learning objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1. ___________ is useful in determining goals for the group, clarifying one’s role and functions as a leader, and explaining the group interactions.
a. Group training
b. A theory
c. A professional statement
d. Supervision

2. The following statement is true about stages of groups: _______________.
a. groups always go through the stages in sequential order
b. the different stages of a group are easily differentiated
c. a group does not necessarily move step by step through stages, but may move back and forth to different stages as it develops
d. most groups do not go through stages of development

3. All EXCEPT ________ are qualities a group leader needs in order to have a positive effect on the outcome of a group.
a. confrontation
b. caring
c. meaning attribution
d. emotional stimulation

4. According to Corey, a generally agreed upon number of group members in most types of adult groups is ___________.
a. 4
b. 8
c. 6
d. 12

5. A main advantage of an open-ended group is __________.
a. member confidentiality
b. size flexibility
c. group cohesiveness
d. productivity

6. In the ____________ model, consultants act as “coordinator.”
a. expert
b. mediation
c. prescription
d. collaboration

7. Teaching self-management skills as a form of consultation is usually done at the ________________ level.
a. individual
b. group
c. organization
d. community

8. During the “phasing in” stage of consultation, emphasis is placed on ___________.
a. establishing a relationship
b. promoting trust
c. active listening
d. all of the above

9. The C Group is used _______________.
a. with children
b. for sharing information and mutual support
c. with adults and children
d. for counseling purposes

10. A reduction in the duration of mental disorders is known as ______________ prevention. a. primary
b. tertiary
c. secondary
d. first line

11. According to Charles Gelso, counseling research is in a state of _____________.
a. agreement
b. bubbles
c. transition
d. stability
12. One of the main reasons counselors do not engage in research studies is _____________.
a. a lack of knowledge about research methods
b. a lack of awareness of the importance research holds in planning effective treatment procedures
c. a fear of finding negative results
d. all of the above

13. In comparing the counseling process to outcome research, the goal formation stage in counseling is analogous to ___________________ in the research process.
a. data collection
b. determining methods to ensure treatment integrity
c. identifying research questions
d. formulation of research design

14. When research approximates what is done in the counseling office, it is known as ________________.
a. process-near
b. replication
c. experience-near
d. perfect

15. _________________ research is interested in investigating some puzzle or problem that is suggested by theory.PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz
a. basic
b. applied
c. outcome
d. process

16. The degree to which a test appears to measure what it is suppose to measure is known as __________________.
a. content validity
b. construct validity
c. consequential validity
d. criterion validity

17. A test that must be completed within a specific period of time, such as an achievement test, is known as a ______________ test.
a. speed
b. power
c. criterion-referenced
d. performance

18. Which of the following is not considered a standardized intelligence test?
a. Stanford-Binet
b. Wechsler Series of Tests
c. Kaufman Battery of Tests
d. Myers Briggs Type Indicator

19. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a(n) ____________ test.
a. interest
b. intelligence
c. personality
d. achievement

20. The advantages of involving clients in the selection of tests include each of the following EXCEPT: ______________.
a. clients accept test results more readily
b. there is an opportunity for the counselor to observe test selection skills
c. there is an opportunity for diagnosis by the counselor based on clients’ reactions to various tests
d. the process promotes client independence

21. Mechanics who enjoy their work have a high ________ theme according to John Holland’s theory.
a. conventional
b. realistic
c. social
d. investigative
22. According to John Krumboltz’s theory, four factors influence a person’s career decision. Besides genetic endowment, the other three are:
a. conditions and events in the environment
b. learning experiences
c. task-approach skills, such as values
d. all of the above

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) UNIT 4
1. Family environments where members are undifferentiated or overly dependent on each other are referred to as ___________.
a. triangulated
b. nonsummative
c. enmeshed
d. configured

2. The concept that the same origin may lead to different outcomes and the same outcome may result from different origins is known as ___________.
a. coincidence
b. happenstance
c. equifinality
d. morphogenesis

3. The tendency for a family to remain in a steady, stable state of equilibrium unless forced to change is known as _________.
a. morphogenesis
b. homeostasis
c. equifinality
d. nonsummativity

4. The statement that “the family is greater than the sum of its parts” exemplifies the concept of ___________.
a. nonsummativity
b. equifinality
c. homeostasis
d. morphogenesis

5. A counselor must initially win which battle in working with a family?
a. Battle for Structure
b. Battle for Initiative
c. Battle for Change
d. Battle for Maintenance

6. A “Type B” stress situation is ___________.
a. foreseeable and avoidable
b. neither foreseeable nor avoidable
c. foreseeable but not avoidable
d. none of the above

7. In the Human Development Center (HDC) model, a middle school counselor _____________.
a. solicits the help of others in performing tasks
b. performs all the tasks in the service cluster
c. works primarily at the task of public relations
d. focuses only on development

8. Approximately ___________ percent of all school children may be depressed because of external stressors and inadequate individual response abilities.
a. 40
b. 15
c. 30
d. 3

9. Primary prevention at the secondary school level can _____________.
a. help students avoid parental advice
b. help students become more involved in their peer relationships
c. help students be more self-reliant
d. help students get along better with teachers

10. The best way for elementary school counselors to publicize their services is through __________.
a. bulletin board announcements
b. commercials
c. individual consultation sessions with parents
d. classroom visits

11. Arthur Chickering’s psychosocial theories concentrate on specific developmental tasks that include ___________.
a. competence
b. managing emotions
c. integrity
d. all of the above

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12. The model of counseling services that emphasizes working with various organizations and personnel who have a direct impact on student mental health is counseling as _____________. a. psychotherapy
b. consultation
c. vocational guidance
d. traditionally defined

13. Students who receive counseling services in college _____________.
a. usually drop out
b. are more likely to graduate
c. have lower grades
d. “a” and “b” only

14. When seeking help, college students first consult ____________.
a. friends
b. faculty
c. close relatives
d. counselors

15. Many students who abuse alcohol have grown up in __________ families.PSY 418 Units 1,2,3 and 4 Quiz
a. healthy
b. big
c. small
d. dysfunctional

16. Programs for the families of a substance abuser include _____________.
a. Al-Anon
b. S.A.D.D.
c. M.A.D.D.
d. all of the above

17. A person who has been a substance abuser but is now dry and has taken special courses to qualify for a NAADAC (National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors) certification is called a(n) ___________ counselor.
a. nonrecovering
b. recovering
c. addictions
d. alcoholism

18. The substance abuse prevention program found in elementary and middle schools that uses a uniform curriculum and police as instructors is known as _____________.
a. M.A.D.D.
b. S. A. D. D.
c. D.A. R.E.
d. B. E. A. R.

19. When a person with an addiction has more than one aspect of his or her personality that is open to treatment, the person is said to have a _____________.
a. dual digression
b. codependency
c. dual diagnosis
d. multiple symptoms

20. An approach to working with nicotine addiction that teaches coping skills, such as reframing and thought stopping, is known as _____________.
a. telephone counseling
b. rapid smoking
c. skills training
d. physical training

21. In addition to working with individuals, mental health counselors utilize a social-ecological perspective that focuses on ____________ as the client
a. the environment
b. social relations
c. the family
d. work groups

22. Health-related activities that are both preventive and remedial and that have a therapeutic value to individuals who practice them consistently are known as those related to _________ wellness.
a. primary
b. positive
c. perfect
d. preventive

23. The two most common clinical symptoms associated with presenting oneself for counseling services are _____________.
a. mania and depression
b. depression and schizophrenia
c. anxiety and depression
d. abuse and anxiety

24. ___________ are programs whose purpose is to work with employees in preventive and remedial ways in order to help them avoid or work through problems that might detrimentally affect their on-the-job behavior.
a. Employer Assistance Programs
b. Employee Assistance Programs
c. Arbitrator Assistance Programs
d. Equal Opportunity Programs

25. Clinical mental health counselors are often employed in _________ organizations.
a. mental health
b. crisis-oriented
c. depression-oriented
d. educational

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