PHI 103 AU Informal Logic Breastfed Babies & Breastfeeding Mothers Essay

PHI 103 AU Informal Logic Breastfed Babies & Breastfeeding Mothers Essay

PHI 103 AU Informal Logic Breastfed Babies & Breastfeeding Mothers Essay

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Running head: IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? Is Marijuana Use Safe? Dr. Christopher Foster PHI103 Informal Logic Ashford University Modeled example for the final paper assignment 1 IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 2 In recent years, many states have voted to legalize marijuana, both for medical and recreational uses, with other states possibly following suit in the future (Sanders, 2018). However, federal law still prohibits the use or sale of marijuana in the United States. With the recent decision by the Justice department to crack down on marijuana distribution in states with legalized marijuana (Johnson, 2018), the question returns of whether those federal laws have real medical science on their side, or whether they are relics of the politics of a bygone era (Ripley, 2017). This paper will begin to explore the specific question of whether marijuana use is harmful to health. It will present a strong argument that marijuana is relatively safe and a strong argument that it is unacceptably dangerous. This will be followed by an analysis of the merits of reasoning and support provided by each. Argument that Marijuana Use is Safe Premise 1: Many studies have been done on the safety of marijuana use, and pooling their data creates a large and reliable data set from which to determine the effects of marijuana usage (Grant, Gonzales, Carey, Natarajan, & Wolfson, 2003). Premise 2: Pooling the data from studies on the effects of marijuana usage shows no significant cognitive impairment in reaction time, attention, language, executive function, perceptual function, and motor skills in marijuana users (2003). Premise 3: Meta-data showed minor cognitive impairment from long term marijuana only in the areas of learning and memory, but these were minor and can be minimized (e.g., in a medical context) (2003). Premise 4: Marijuana has beneficial uses that outweigh its minor harms (Wetterau, 2015). IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 3 Premise 5: If a substance has beneficial uses that outweigh its harms then its use is acceptably safe. Conclusion: Marijuana use is acceptably safe. Support for the Argument that Marijuana is Safe A giant meta-study pooled data from many research studies of the effects of marijuana use and determined that marijuana use did not result in significant change in performance in six of eight cognitive areas (Grant et al., 2003). PHI 103 AU Informal Logic Breastfed Babies & Breastfeeding Mothers Essay

Because the study considered all relevant research studies and had a large data pool, these results can be considered reliable. Thus, there is substantial support for the first two premises of the argument. The two areas in which there was a decrease in function, learning and memory, showed relatively minor effects, which could be mitigated, for example, in medical contexts. For example, the declines were the result of long term and/or recent use of marijuana. Casual users or medical users may not experience even those minor declines in performance (Grant et al., 2003). There are many documented medical benefits from marijuana use, including for nausea, AIDS, chemotherapy, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, MS, and Huntington’s disease. The risks of harm from the use of a potentially addictive drug can be mitigated with proper precautions from a physician (Wetterau, 2015). The fifth premise is difficult to prove specifically because of different possible interpretations of what it means for something to be ‘acceptably’ safe. However, various academic articles support the idea that marijuana’s level of risk is within acceptable limits. Some argue, for example, that it is safer than alcohol and even some foods (Americans for Safe Access, IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 4 2018), so if those substances are considered safe enough to be legal, then perhaps marijuana should be too. Furthermore, one can weigh the harms of its use against the harms of its criminalization. One author, for example, reasons, “Given that marijuana’s harms appear to be relatively small, though, advocates argue that, even if legalization leads to more pot use, it’s worth the benefit of reducing incarceration and crippling violent drug cartels financed in part by revenue from illicit weed sales” (Lopez, 2018). Therefore, one can reason, its use is safe relative to the harms of its prohibition, and therefore that constitutes an acceptable level of risk. Argument that Marijuana Use is Unsafe Premise 1: Marijuana is an addictive substance (Volkow, Baler, Compton, & Weiss, 2014). Premise 2: Marijuana use causes long term negative effects on physical and mental health (Feeney & Kampman, 2016). Premise 3: Marijuana use causes elevated driving risks (Neavyn, Blohm, Babu, & Bird, 2014). Premise 4: Marijuana use among adolescents is correlated with lower academic achievement, job performance, and social functioning (Palamar et al., 2014). Premise 5: It is unsafe to use substances that are addictive and that have many negative effects. Conclusion: It is unsafe to use Marijuana. IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 5 Support for the Argument that Marijuana is Unsafe The first four premises of the argument are supported by studies indicating each of the effects in question. The degree to which these effects depend upon the quantity and duration of use, along with the age of the user and recentness of use is still an open question. However, the multiple studies cited do seem to support strongly the idea that the use of this substance can cause lasting harm. The fifth premise links the facts given in the first four premises to the language of the conclusion. It shows that any substance that has the properties demonstrated in the first premises will qualify as unsafe, thus demonstrating the truth of the conclusion. Furthermore, the fifth premise makes a substantial point that weighs against even medical uses of the product. Though the consequences of strictly medical uses may be relatively minor, if a product is addictive and has harmful consequences, then users are likely to continue to use it beyond its medicinal value, resulting in long term harms (Wetterau, 2015). The fact that there have been demonstrated risks associated with the use of marijuana indicates that researchers should caution against the legalization of the product, especially since its legalization could to lead to greater social acceptability and more widespread use, especially among teens. Seen in this light, these harms become quite significant and suggestion strong caution against the legalization and use of the substance. Analysis of the Reasoning on Both Sides As noted, both arguments have premises that are supported by substantial scholarly research. Both arguments additionally provide strong support for the truth of their conclusions. Each even includes a premise that links the factual claims made in the previous premises to the IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 6 specific judgment made by the conclusion, resulting in powerful support for the truth of each conclusion. However, their conclusions make opposite points, resulting in an apparent contradiction. There is a good question, therefore, of how to determine which of these conclusions is most likely to be true. PHI 103 AU Informal Logic Breastfed Babies & Breastfeeding Mothers Essay

There are several factors that can be used to explain this strong evidence for opposite conclusions. One is that authors, even authors of scholarly meta-studies, are frequently going to put more focus on studies whose results tend to support the conclusions that they personally support. Furthermore, each study will focus on factors that strengthen the case for its preferred side. For example, a scholar whose research supports the use of marijuana might focus on mitigating factors such as the fact that dosages can be carefully controlled in a medical setting. Researchers on the side of the opposition, on the other hand, may emphasize that addicted users are likely to use the substance in doses well beyond those recommended by physicians. Given the fact that even scholars can approach such issues from biased points of view, it is difficult to arrive at one and only one ‘objective fact’ about whether marijuana use is acceptably safe or unacceptably dangerous. However, study of scholarly sources on both sides of this issue allows critical thinkers to be more aware of the types of risks and benefits and to be able to weigh the concerns for and against the use of the substance as objectively as one can. Use of non-scholarly sources, by contrast, can lead one to partisan advocacy in which one is not as objectively aware of the substantive considerations on both sides of the question. Having studies both sides of this question, my own evaluation of the research indicates that long term marijuana use, or use at a young age, can have deleterious health consequences. However, use by adults in the limited context of medical application can have benefits that render the risks acceptable (Grant et al., 2003). Furthermore, in a medical setting, the use is IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 7 typically controlled, temporary, and supervised by a physician. Therefore, the level of risks in these contexts, especially when contrasted with those of many other legal prescription drugs, may fall within an acceptable range. Conclusion It is common for people to be wedded to a position and to seek evidence only to support their side. However, in pursuit of truth, critical thinkers make a point of understanding the best arguments on all sides of important questions. This allows them to be more informed and also more fair-minded, open to changing their views to whichever position most aligns with the best evidence. Having researched the topic of marijuana use, I have found strong support for contrasting positions. On the one hand, there appears to be strong evidence for some potential harms associated with long term use of the substance. PHI 103 AU Informal Logic Breastfed Babies & Breastfeeding Mothers Essay

On the other hand, when it comes to medical applications, which tend to be short term and in which there are real medical benefits, these risks may fall within acceptable limits. IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 8 References Americans for Safe Access (2018). Cannabis safety. Retrieved from http://www.safeaccessnow.org/cannabis_safety Feeney, K. E., & Kampman, K. M. (2016). Adverse effects of marijuana use. The Linacre Quarterly, 83(2), 174-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/00243639.2016.1175707 Grant, I., Gonzales, R., Carey, C. L., Natarajan, L., & Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9(5), 679-689. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617703950016 Lopez, G. (2018). Marijuana is a relatively safe drug—with some risks. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/cards/marijuana-legalization/health-effects-marijuana Neavyn, M. J., Blohm, E., Babu, K. M., & Bird, S. B. (2014). Medical marijuana and driving: A review. Journal of Medical Toxicology 10(3), 269-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13181014-0393-4 Palamar, J. J., Fenstermaker, M., Kamboukos, D., Ompad, D. C., Cleland, C. M., & Weitzman, M. (2014). Adverse psychosocial outcomes associated with drug use among US high school seniors: A comparison of alcohol and marijuana. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 40(6), 438-446. https://doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2014.943371 Ripley, E. (2017, December 20). Why is marijuana illegal? A look at the history of MJ in America. Retrieved from https://news.medicalmarijuanainc.com/the-road-to-prohibitionwhy-did-america-make-marijuana-illegal-in-the-first-place/ IS MARIJUANA USE SAFE? 9 Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. B. (2014). Adverse health effects of marijuana use. New England Journal of Medicine, 370, 2219-2227. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1402309 Wetterau, N. (2015). Medical marijuana—Can we do no harm? Family Doctor: A Journal of the New York State Academy of Family Physicians, 3(3), 16-20. Retrieved from http://www.nysafp.org/News/Family-Doctor-A-Journal-for-the-NYSAFP Running head: IS BREASTFEEDING BETTER THAN FORMULAR? Is Breastfeeding Better than Formula? Name PHI103 Informal Logic Instructor Due Date 1 IS BREASTFEEDING BETTER THAN FORMULAR? 2 Is Breastfeeding Better than Formula? Doctors recommend that for the first six months in life, breastfeeding is recommended since it provides nutrients to the baby and is the most convenient way of feeding a baby. However, most mothers willing to breastfeed their babies could feel less like mothers due to lack or insufficient breast milk for their infants. The introduction of formula milk makes it possible for such women to feed their babies with milk that mimics breast milk’s nutritional composition. The question in this paper; is breastfeeding better than formula? This is analyzed by presenting both sides of its viewpoints and supported through scholarly articles. Presentation of the Argument that Breastfeeding is Better than Formula The benefits of breastfeeding have been outlined in the article to include preventing malnutrition and infectious diseases. Additionally, higher mortality rates in breastfed infants are recorded, including higher intelligence quotients (IQ) and fewer asthma cases (Grummer‐Strawn and Rollins, 2015). The article’s different breastfeeding benefits illustrate the relevance and contribution of breastfeeding for people in different social, economic, and cultural setup. Breastfed babies have higher chances of healthy weight gain and reduced allergies or possible cases of obesity, as the article suggests. Premise 1: Breastfed babies are healthier and portray fewer allergic reactions. Premise 2: Breastfeeding mothers also have low chances of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and postpartum depression. Premise 3: Breast milk produces specific antibodies that fight pathogens and boost the baby’s appetite. IS BREASTFEEDING BETTER THAN FORMULAR? 3 Therefore, breastfeeding has posed many benefits to infants fed at the right time with the right amount of breast milk. Mothers who breastfeed are also advantageous because of the prevention of other health and stress-related conditions after birth. Quality of reasoning for the Source The article summarizes the health benefits accompanied by breastfeeding infants. PHI 103 AU Informal Logic Breastfed Babies & Breastfeeding Mothers Essay

The author achieves this by researching different feeding methods with breast milk and their implications on their health. The article notes that feeding a baby with breast milk from a cup or bottle instead of directly from the breast is vital in addressing obesity or malocclusion (Grummer‐Strawn and Rollins, 2015). This is crucial for the reader to note that breast milk is essential for the baby regardless of the feeding method imposed since feeding implies different benefits. However, the article also notes that feeding the baby directly from the breast is not harmful as it poses other benefits. The report’s argument is based on facts with different sources, proving that researchers have reviewed the points outlined and approved. Generally, the article has integrated researched information to argue that breastfeeding is essential for babies firmly. The author concludes that breast milk is beneficial to the baby’s health, cognitive development, and generation of elements that help fight allergic reactions. Presentation of the Opposing argument that breastfeeding is better than formula Milk formulas are breast milk substitutes that can be manipulated in their nutritional composition to include fats and proteins necessary for the baby’s growth. The nutrients required to feed low birth weight infants or deficient birth weight infants cannot be achieved by maternal breast milk (Brown, Walsh, and McGuire, 2019). The stages involved in handling breast milk, IS BREASTFEEDING BETTER THAN FORMULAR? 4 such as pasteurization, refrigeration, and freeze-thawing, may reduce its immune-nutrient and macro-nutrient content. However, the manufacturing formula process is monitored and regulated to meet international and national manufacturing standards regulated by the FDA (Martin, Ling, and Blackburn, 2016). Formula enriched in the necessary nutrient available in breast milk may provide higher nutrient levels than breast milk. Premise 1: In cases of unavailable breast milk, the formula is the best to ensure infants’ similar nutrient intake. Premise 2: The nutrients required to feed low birth weight infants cannot only be accomplished by breast milk. Therefore, for mothers with little to no breast milk and have preterm or low birth weight babies, the formula is the best option for feeding. Quality of reasoning for the Source The Source bases its reasoning on the angle of preterm and low birth weight or deficient birth weight infants.

The articles adequately support the argument by first acknowledging the nutritional content in breast milk. However, the articles take an exciting point by mentioning the consequences incurred when handling breast milk, which results in low nutrients for preterm and low birth weight infants. The argument of why breast milk could not be appropriate due to handling issues is well indicated and articulated using facts. The articles also mention the importance of formula, including that the milk can be added nutrients necessary for infants’ healthy development and growth. The sources have been researched to show milk alternative, a formula in preterm infants, and how it can be enhanced to meet an infant’s nutritional requirements. Therefore, the nutritional composition of formula could be equal or more than that IS BREASTFEEDING BETTER THAN FORMULAR? 5 of maternal breast milk to boost the infant’s growth where the mother is unable to fulfill their maternal function, which is breastfeeding. The articles have given substantial evidence towards a successful argument that formula is better than breastfeeding when the mother is incapable of breastfeeding or where the infant is incapable of taking the breast milk due to nutritional concerns that facilitate growth in preterm conditions. Evaluation of Arguments in Non-Scholarly and Scholarly Sources Both scholarly and non-scholarly resources are vital in providing information to a different audience. Authors who write non-scholarly articles may vary in the profession from bloggers to medical specialists or other disciplines related to the articles they write. However, the authors rarely refer to their careers because they target the general population and minimize technical words when explaining a concept. Contrary, scholarly sources are written by individuals who have specialized in a particular research field. The articles contain technical information with the targeted audience being students or researchers seeking to derive information in their research field. The sources are also peer-reviewed to determine their credibility before being released to their audience. Both scholarly and non-scholarly articles are influenced by the need to inform their audience on a particular topic of concern. Although that is the case for scholarly and non-scholarly articles, scholarly articles are written due to a research question and concern toward a subject. In contrast, non-scholarly articles are written out of giving information about a topic. Ultimately, scholarly articles are based on logic, facts, and experiments conducted to formulate the final product, the Source used by other researchers and students. The quality from scholarly and non-scholarly sources is valid according to the targeted audience. IS BREASTFEEDING BETTER THAN FORMULAR? Conclusion Researching and arguing for and against breastfeeding and formula milk using popular and scholarly resources has given me the knowledge needed to determine and distinguish what I need to incorporate in my writing. I can differentiate other resources from intellectual resources provided an academic task to research. Most scholarly articles include bibliographies or references from other researchers that support the argument, a difference I have realized when handling this assignment. 6 IS BREASTFEEDING …
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