Evaluate cognitive mapping using locations in the participant’s environment.For the purposes of the present assignment, the following rules should be applied to the presentation of

Evaluate cognitive mapping using locations in the participant’s environment.For the purposes of the present assignment, the following rules should be applied to the presentation of
brain-behavior literature
In order to familiarize yourself with some of the brain-behavior literature you will (a) find two relativelyrecent articles (not earlier than 2000) from the serious scientific primary literature (i.e., literature thatpresents new results and does not merely review already published literature) and (b) write a papersummarizing those articles, tying them together as much as possible. In addition, a separate “References”page and full copies of each of the articles will be handed in with the assignment; the copies of thearticles will not be returned. Please note that no credit will be given for summaries of articles that arenot examples of primary literature. Further, no credit will be given for the assignment if copies of thearticles are not submitted with the summary paper. The topic for the articles will be chosen on a“first-come, first-served” basis and may be taken from the attached “Topics” sheet or chosen elsewhere.
In summarizing the articles you should provide the following information in your own words as much aspossible:(a) a brief description of the purpose of the study(b) a presentation of the basic methodology of the study in some detail, including information on theparticipants/subjects (e.g., species, number, and any other important characteristics) and the essentialprocedure of the study (e.g., “Patients were given the subtests of the WAIS-R during a PET scan.”)(c) a presentation of the essential results of the study (e.g., “Administration of the Block Design subtestwas associated with significantly greater right hemisphere activity.”) You may present averages, but you donot need to present inferential statistics (e.g., t-tests, ANOVA’s, etc.)(d) a brief description of the conclusions of the study
In all cases, the definition of “essential” is a judgment call. When in doubt, provide more detail ratherthan less detail. The entire assignment must be typed and double-spaced (including the “References” page)and will be worth a total of 20 points. The assignment will be graded on both the content and style of thesummary and the format of the reference citations in the paper and the “References” section at the end of thepaper, which also is double-spaced. Note that the “References” section lists references alphabetically bythe first author’s last name.
In the present course, the format to be used for the treatment of references is that of the PublicationManual of the American Psychological Association (5th Edition). Citation of an article in the text isrelatively simple. Please note that citations in the text do not include the title of the article, butrather note the author(s) and year of publication. Further, the names of the authors can become part of thesentence, with the form as follows:
Evans and Pezdek (1980) sought to evaluate cognitive mapping using locations in the participant’senvironment.
On the other hand, the names of the authors might be included parenthetically, as follows:
A recent study (Evans & Pezdek, 1980) sought to evaluate cognitive mapping using locations in theparticipant’s environment.
As you compare the above two examples note the use of the word “and” when the authors are mentioned in thetext and the ampersand (i.e., “&”) when the authors are presented parenthetically. Because numerous articlesfound in the medical literature have many authors, please the following rule for citations in the text:for two authors, cite both authors whenever you reference themfor three to five authors, cite all authors the first time and the first author et al. on subsequentoccasions (e.g., Johnson, et al., 2005)for six or more authors cite only the first author et al. on all occasionsPlease note that when you are summarizing an article, you do not need repeatedly to cite the reference forthat article as long as it is clear that you still are referring to the same article.
When assembling the “References” page, note that the articles are to be listed alphabetically by the firstauthor’s last name. Again, all entries are double-spaced. Following is a sample reference citation (Hint:Please note what is capitalized and what is not. Also note what is italicized and what is not. Please notethe spacing, etc.):
Evans, G. W., & Pezdek, K. (1980). Cognitive mapping: Knowledge of real world distance and
location information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 13, 13-24.
Dealing with Numbers
For the purposes of the present assignment, the following rules should be applied to the presentation ofnumbers:if a number begins a sentence, it always should be written out (e.g., Seventy-two adults participated in thestudy.)on all other occasions, put the number in numeral form, regardless of its size (e.g., There were 2 groups onparticipants in the study.) Note that this is the formatting rule for the “Abstract” section of an APApaper.
Direct Quotes vs. Paraphrasing?
A question frequently asked is whether to use direct quotes from articles or to paraphrase (i.e., put inyour own words). Generally, the rule of thumb is that you should avoid direct quotes as much as possible andattempt to paraphrase for your summaries. Where the material is highly technical (e.g., method and resultssections), it is more permissible to quote directly; however you still should try to put as much as you canin your own words.

 
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