Economic Problems Affecting ECD Enrollment

Economic Problems Affecting ECD Enrollment

Research Proposal

Submitted to Laikipia University Nyahururu Town Campus

Department of Economics and Business Studies

In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Commerce

Submitted By

byPerpetua MwangiNyahururu, Kenya

April, 2014


I officially state that the information confined in this research proposal is my personal work and does not contained works adopted from previous papers which is not properly referenced or unpublished material.

I also necessitate this declaration relates to the execution of the project and any of its linked documentation.

For further studies in relation to this research, I consent that this work can be applied for future assessment purposes, including the department of ethical principles which monitors plagiarism in order to check integrity.




I dedicate this work to my family friends and relatives at home


This study focuses on assessing the factor that affect enrollment in ECDE. Its objectives are to determine the factor that determines the age enrolment in a municipality and the impacts of parented financial status on enrollment.

The study will employ descriptive research methods. The variables under study are qualitative in native the study target ECDE centre in all municipalities.

this is a total 100 pupil in school stratified random sampling method will be used to get a sample of 50 pupils to be studies this comprises the 50% of the total population and this would give adequate data for generalization oral interview and mailed questionnaire shall be used t collect the data mailed questionnaire is cheap and saves time whereas interviews would give in – depth information because there is usually an opportunity to probe more details. Data so collected shall be analyzed by use of non parametric tests such as percentages proportions & presented in tables.

The findings are expected to be used by the school to administration & management boards to improve the rate of enrolment per population as well as by age gender.

Table of contents

Introduction5Background5Factors Influencing climate change in Antarctica6Nature of climate change in Antarctica7Physical topography in Antarctica7Animals in the Antarctica9How this animals are affected10Reproduction Factors10Breeding Places10Mating11Temperature factors12Food factors12Rising Seas Factors13Psychological factors14Recommendation14Conclusion15Chapter one


This chapter deals with introduction of the study background report statement of the problem purpose of the study objectives of the study research questions significance of the study limitations of the study and theoretical framework.

Background of the study

The government of Kenya does not have proper institutionalized policy on ECD in Kenya. This is the verdict of a UNESCOL/ OECD report. The other findings of the report are that the ECDE teachers are not employed by the state while ECDE are manned mostly private sector or loosely linked to public primary schools. In 2003 the government initiated free primary education policy. the policy led to phenomenal growth in the enrollment in primary schools but actually led to decline in enrollment in ECDE several studies have been carried out to determine that factors that affect some of the factor identified by researchers include the financials ability of parents gender of the child, type of residence and the employment of the women in the labor force. this study is carried out on the background of lack of co-ordinate ECDE policy as well as unreliability of data owning to the great number of ECDE that are not properly registered by the government. This leads to generation of data that is scanty and unreliable.

Statement of the problem

The project studied the factors that affect the enrollment of children in ECDE center in 91 primaries.

Objectives of the study

To determine the impact of family financial status on the enrollment age of children in ECDE.

To determine the impact of the type of settlement (in enrolment in 91 municipality

To establish the patterns of enrolment in ECDE by gender.

To determine the impact of women’s labor force participation on enrollments

Research questions

How does the family income affect enrolment in ECDE centers?

How does do settlement patterns affect enrollment?

To what extent does gender affect enrollment

How does the participation of women in the labor force affect ECD enrollment?

Significance of the study

The study is important to the following groups for the following reasons. The school administration will find invaluable policy that will be indispensable in improving that rate of enrollment in ECDE.

Not only will it be able to improve enrollment in terms of rate per capital but also by the age at which children are first admitted to some sort of early childhood training and education.

Secondly the study is helpful to managers and teachers in ECDE. They will be able to get theoretical tools to use while encouraging parents to enroll their kids in school. The study helps parents and other members of the community who have an interest in ECDE enrollment rates and the appropriate age of enrolling children in ECDE centers.

Limitation of the study

The study was limited by time since it was carried out alongside other teaching and administrative duties. Therefore the students’ researcher called some of the respondents as the questionnaires were dispatched.

The study was limited due to lack of proper data on ECDE centers

The study also had financial expenses as was required to prepare binding of the research work.


The student’s researchers are an ECDE teachers and practitioner with wide knowledge of the local social cultural economic conditions of the study location. The researcher is known to the procedures of being introduced to the school and local population

Definition of terms


Refers to the amount of money in shillings received by a family unit over a one year period


This refers to the formal admission of a child aged between 3 and 6 years to an institution involved in introducing the children to formal education likely to lead to studies in primary school.

ECD centre: an institution that provides formal education to children aged between 2 and 6years

High income family refers to a group of people consisting of at least one adult and a child below 18 years earning more than KSH 15,000 per month

Labor force participation refers to a state of being employed in a job that requires regular participation during official working hours and where the provision of labor is governed by bureaucratic procedures

Low income family refers to group of people consisting of at least one adult and a child below 18 years earning less than KSH 15,000 per month.

Rural settlement – refers to any region not recognized by the government of Kenya as urban through a notice in the gazette.

Urban settlement – refers to any settlement gazette by the government of Kenya as urban.

List of abbreviations

ECDE – early childhood development education

EFA – education for all

GER – gross enrolment rate

GNP – gross national product

OCED – organization for economic – co-operation and development

Chapter two

Literature review


Effect of income on ECDE enrollment

There is mounting evidence that interventions in early childhood particularly benefit the poor for instance, dropout rates did not change significantly for children from the change cause but fell a dramatic 46% for the lower caste and astonishing 80% for the middle castle. (Chaturredi et al 1987) a study conducted in Jamaica gives unequivocal proof that nutritional supplementation for under nourished children, who most likely to come from disadvantaged families improve mental development (Grantham – mc Gregory et al 1991)

a study on the effects of child care costs on households behavior in kenya shows how women’s labor force participation and older households with children aged three to seven the authors model household demand for mothers demand for schooling and household demand for child care. They find that;

A high cost for child care discourages household from using formal child care facilities and has a negative effect on mothers’ participation in market work.

The cost of child care and the level of mother’s wages affect older children school enrollment but these factors affect boys and girls schooling differently. an increase in mothers wages increases boys enrollment but depresses girls enrollment

Higher child care costs have no significant effect on boys schooling but significantly decrease the number of girls in school (Lokishin Glins Kenya and Garcia 2000) in 2000, economic incentives have a powerful effect on the behaviors of women with children in Kenya. In addition to increasing the future productivity of children government subsidies of low cost early childhood development programs would increase the number of mothers who work thus increasing the incomes of poor household and lifting some families out of poverty. They would also increase older girl’s enrollment in school by releasing them from child care responsibilities.

A high cost for children care discourages household from using formal child care facilities and has a negative effect on mother’s participation in paid work of other households’ behavior. The cost of child care and the level of mother’s wages increases boy’s enrollment, but depresses girl’s enrolment. Higher childcare has no significant effect on bys schooling but significantly decreases the number of girls in school. This research group, poverty and human resources, development research group poverty reduction and economic of the correction between income levels and enrollment is to compare the ger and gop of various countries.

In conclusion the UNESCO / OECD notes that unlike primary education pre- school services is fee paying. This puts a particular burden on poor parents who are also expected to contribute to the building of facilities payment of teacher’s salaries and management of pre-schools. Little or no financial support comes from other references poor children have no choice but to attend over crowded pre-school services is available in the vicinity. In some cases hunger parents with low education levels and those living below the poverty line who do not enroll their children in preschool. a combination of ignorance & poverty prevent children from partaking of the rich experiences offered by pre-school which provide a head start and a solid foundation for the development of lifelong learning.

Effect of settlement patterns on enrollment

Studies have been carried out to determine whether rural or urban settlement affect the rate of enrollment in ECD. studies by une…. OECD tend to show that urban settlement such as Nairobi lead in enrollment rates while pastoral areas like he north eastern lag behind.

Studies by Bernard van leer foundation working papers in early childhood development problems concluded that children in urban centers are more likely to experience fewer problems than children from rural areas. Another related concern is children who are born to parents that are forced to become exiles subsequent land/tribal clashes in Kenya like 2007. The psychological trauma the children suffer is likely to hurt them the rest of their lives many of these children are forced into becoming street beggars

Effects of gender on enrollment

Much study has been carried out on the issue of ECD enrollment by gender. Kenya’s population proportion by gender enrollment than girls yet there are more boys enrolled than girls in ECD centers. The report by Achoka el at states that government efforts to provide equal educational opportunities for boys and girls are frustrated by some parent’s choice to pay more attention to boys who are regarded a more formidable asset to the family than the girls. consequently more boys than girls enroll for ECD creating gender disparity in spite of the fact that statistically Kenyans female to male population ratios are 51 to 49%.

Accordingly as earlier noted enrollment for ECD in Kenya is far below expected average of 70% UNESCO, 2006 all efforts to improve the situation notwithstanding (republic of Kenya 2004, 2003). The north eastern prioritize exhibits the highest gender gap of 15.6 percentage points with the proportion of boys being 56.8% as against 43.2 for girls. Coast province was second in percentage mismatch between girls and boy enrollment with a disparity of 3.2 percentage points in favor of boys.

Effect of women participation in the labor force on ECD enrollment

A study was carried out by Lokshin Glinskenya el al on the topic of ECD program on women’s labor force participation and older children’s schooling in Kenya. The study was commissioned by the World Bank and is probably one of the most comprehensive on the topic. The researcher reached the following conclusion;

“The level of wages available to them and the cost of child care can be expected to affect women’s labor force participation. Child care affected which child care arrangements household choose high cost of ECD programs discourages household from using outside arrangement for their pre-scholars and increases the number of house hold that rely on home provided care. High childcare costs were also found to have an employed affect on the level of maternal employment. Both the cost of care and the level of wages available to the mother affect older children school enrollment.

Conception frame work

This paper adopts the UNESCO definition of childhood as the period from birth to eight years old. Enrollment is defined as being admitted to an institution that provide formal education and is registered by the government and offers one of the curriculum commonly offered by similar institutions across the country to children of similar age.

Chapter three

Research and methodology


The study was conducted through survey of ECDE in 91 municipality primary school. The study involved direct observation of the families and ECDE centers. This facilitated and the study of the extent to which children enrolled in ECDE centers. The study employed survey techniques in order to collect qualifications data. The researchers supplemented his schedules for school head teachers and teachers. i carried out research involving 100 pupils in a total of 9 teachers and 32 parents most of the middle class parents send their ECD children to this school while the low income parents send their children to ECD centers connected to public primary schools.

Research design

This research proposes the application of quasi-experimental design. I will be attempting to investigate differences how economic levels impacts on the nature of ECDE enrollment. In particular, the experiments will be engineered to assess randomization effects as employed by the researcher. I preferred the quasi-experimental design for its role in intervening to its target population. The quasi experimental research has close similarities with the experimental design. However, in the quasi approach, I will be enabled to control data. Secondly, the quasi experiment is subject to concern of internal validity.

The randomized assignments are considerate in letting the researcher manage different groups. In any case, randomization does not guarantee groups unequal baseline. The research will appoint a typical Kenyan Town Nyahururu where investigation is going to be carried out. To achieve this, research will identify variables of the quasi-independent variable. The x-variable ensures that data is manipulated to ensure that it does not affect dependent variables. The x-factor ensures that grouping means that i will be able to treat data in the placebo or control group. The underlying advantage can be associated with the ability of placebos to assess physiological factors. In any case, the research will be attempting to compare the psychological instances associated with reading the context.

Classification by Settlement Number

Rural Based Parent 16

Urban Based Parent 34

Table representing data on the average enrollment age in ECD centre in 91 municipality school based on income level. Type of parent by cost low cost average enrollment age in baby class average enrollment age in nursery average enrollment age in introduction class

Classification by Income Number

Rural Based Parent 32

Urban Based Parent 18

I carried out research involving 100 pupils in a total of 9 teachers and 32 parents most of the middle class parents send their ECD children to this school while the low income parents send their children to ECD centers connected to public primary schools. Data relating to family income and enrollment age ECD centers. I carried out observation and administered interview on the casualty between family income and enrollment age of children in ECD centers. I obtained the data represented by the table below

Table representing data on the average enrollment age in ECD centre in 91 municipality school based on income level.

Sampling and sampling procedures

The target population of the study will be girl working women aged between 20-45 years. i plan to enroll this study during the in the upcoming period. At the end of the research, I will design and analyze questionnaires. The students will be supplied with two copies of each book, and the total research will take three to five weeks depending on reading abilities. Also, for the purpose of maximization, the research will analyze different students basing to compete data. As a result, the thesis will appoint a selection criteria basing on the ability of programs to access each reading abilities. The research will apply both quantitative and qualitative methods. The select criteria will encompass a minimum of four categories of participants. The program will ensure that those admitted in active participation data (n=112); n those on inactive participation at the parameter of (n=20); 2. The seconding qualitative phase of the study will ensure that sampling will select participants based on their ability to select informants will ensure questions information. to inter-relate data, the seconding qualitative stage will apply results from first quantitative phase. Potential candidates will be gauged on how each responds to different questions.

Reliability and validity of instrument

To ensure that the data collection instruments are reliable and valid the researcher will carry out a pilot study involving the instrument. The data was also presented before a research psychologist who helped to ensure that they do not affect the respondent adversely or likely to generate subjective data. the instrument were written in pain language and effort was made as far as possible to make sure that it has the same effect on the respondent that was intended by researchers

Data collection instrument

The use of questioners was adopted in data collection alongside interviews. Self administered questionnaires were used largely with a few interviews for clarification of some issues. The interview method shall help to probe the information to a greater depth. To ensure data is generated, focus will be engineered to look on external factors that impede women to be productive. As a result, the research will endeavor to appoint cross-section survey design. This methodology will be imperative in collecting data at one point in time. The integral technique applied in collecting quantitative data will be feed on multiple formats on yes or no self-evaluation techniques. Information will be appointed from Likert-type open ended questions.

For simplicity, the questionnaire will consist of 11 distinct questions organized into six scales. The questions will be developed to investigate how each of the three groups responded to a given questions. In this case, program experiences will apply a 4 point likert type scale of either agree or disagree. Also, this thesis proposes the election of a strongly agree or strongly disagreeing in questions related to economic welfare of the liberated girl brain. It is as well imperative to examine the comfort levels in applying answering the questions. As a result, the thesis proposes the development of comfortable and not comfortable questions. These are questions related to ECD and education (ivankova, 2005). The questionnaire will as well appoint 4 point rating scale to examine the whether the two texts motivates participants to embrace freedom and liberation grounds. As a result, there will be questions investigating positive or negative attributes of the research.

Data collection procedure

This research proposes the application of handwritten questionnaires. The questionnaire will be designed to ensure that they meet specified requirements of agility as well as enabling confidentiality a vital prerequisite required in investigation. Data will be collected in papers which will be later transferred to SPSS data analytic tool. A consent form will be sent to participants requesting them to comply with the survey (jacobs, 1977), this will be done before conducting an assessment. The survey instruments are validated to identify an eligible proportionate of individual. a total of twenty participants will be distributed into two groups of ten/ ten individuals each. a group of ten who are willing to read the two texts and an opposite group of ten of who are not willing to read the texts. The research targets participants from four to five public schools located in Nyahururu Town in Kenya). The results will aid vital stability and intra-consistency reliability of face to face questionnaires.

Data analysis procedures

The data was being analyzed using descriptive statistics. This qualitative analysis involved tabulations of data into frequencies and percentages. Data collected was tabulated for easy analysis. Qualitative analysis was found to be useful in case because of the description nature of the data to be obtained i shall be used denote “yes” and “no” shall be used to denote “no” responses. This would ease the analysis. This research proposes the assessment of data in quantitative analysis, to illuminate on qualitative analysis. Data analysis will be vital in analyzing parallelism of data. The correlation among predictor variables must be identified and analyzed individually for the potential negativity in resulting to high probability of being in a given category.

To achieve appropriate results, data screening should include descriptive statistics of all variables information. In an event of missing data, singularity, or multi-co-linearity, the research will apply descriptive statistics achieve summarized texts inform of tabular form. The chief research question pursued in this upcoming research will attempts to investigate how family incomes impacts on ECDE education. Therefore, the statistical analysis predetermines the choice of a test to be carried out in this study (ivankova, 2005). For the purpose of consistency, the underlying assumption will seek to investigate real multivariate normality, linearity and variances. Also, prudency will be apprehended by the analyzing data to meet underlying objectives, it is imperative to apply transformation procedures. This will be achieved by predetermining standardized coefficients of the discriminating functions.

Ethical consideration

It is appropriate to seek permission from the people of Nyahururu Town Sample section – cosite. This is based on the knowledge that in general research, it is imperative to incorporate the larger society in the outcome of the research. It is appropriate to ensure that business interaction of members of the general community served the roles and goals of the research. This proposal considers face to face interaction as paramount interview methods, surveys, or even observing people behavior. This is backed by the knowledge that this research proposal does not wish to harm the people of Nyahururu. Also as part of the proposal, this research will ensure that similar surveys or observation should be conducted under the assumption that you will keep findings anonymous. Further to this, data will be conducted accurately to represent what has been observed, and information will be shared with area representative; for instance, the chief


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Rebecca J.
Rebecca J.
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