Combat trauma

Combat trauma


Combat trauma is a common mental condition in active soldiers as well as in veterans. Trauma is caused by witnessing or going through terrifying happenings and is characterized by either consistent flashbacks to the event, hypersensitivity, anxiety and consistent thoughts on the event.

Thesis statement: This paper will provide a summary of the nature of combat trauma which include: Intrusive memories, cutting off people, shift in emotional reactions and consistent negative thoughts. It will also focus on the causes of trauma such as loss of friends, terrifying human suffering and survivor’s guilt among others. Lastly it will consider the different methods of dealing with the trauma, both long term and short term solutions.

Nature of trauma

Intrusive memories- these include flashbacks to the events that often trigger anxiety and negative thoughts. It is also characterized by nightmares or reliving the memories of the events by the patient.

Cutting off people- victims tend to think that family and the civilian community does not understand them hence tend to create walls in such relationships. It can also include avoiding visiting places that bring back memories of the traumatic event.

Shift in emotional reactions which involves being hypersensitive and aware of danger that is not even present, high irritability, destructive behaviors such as drugs and substance abuse, aggressive behavior and sleeplessness.

Consistent negative thoughts such as guilt, regret over doing things better at the time of the event or suicidal thoughts.

Causes of combat trauma

War is the biggest cause as brings with it intense human suffering which can be result to trauma

Death of colleagues in the unit can cause survivors guilt hence trauma

Change in environment upon returning home

Betrayal by a fellow soldier causing lack of trust

Ways of dealing with combat trauma

Therapy and counselling

Use of drugs such as morphine in cases where the victim is badly injured

Finding purpose through spiritual guidance

Rehabilitation and detoxification services by medical military professionals.


Combat trauma in active and veteran soldiers cannot be ignored. Trauma can take the form of intrusive memories, negative thoughts, cutting off people and changes in emotional and physical reactions. These people can however be helped through therapies and counselling sessions done by professionals, administration of drugs that are likely to reduce trauma once the patients recover, spiritual guidance and rehabilitation and detoxification services done by medical military professionals.


Combat trauma is a common thing among soldiers; both veterans and those active in service. Soldiers are trained in such a way that they view each other family and as such a closely knit relationship is often seen when serving and long after they get off service. However, their time is can be characterized by traumatic events which can affect their lives in a very destructive way. Combat trauma often appears in the form of intrusive memories such as nightmares and reliving traumatic events, cutting off people or avoiding places where the traumatic event occurred, having negative thoughts some which may be suicidal and also changes in emotional and physical reactions such being aggressive and highly irritable. This paper also focuses on the causes of combat trauma and specifically looks at causes such as war and the terrific occurrences that happen, loosing fellow soldiers and never having enough time to grieve, changes in environment once they return home and also betrayal by fellow soldiers. However, this is a mental condition that can be dealt with before it morphs into a chronic mental disorder such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). These solutions include Rehabilitation and detoxification services, administration of drugs that reduce the likelihood of having PTSD, therapy and counselling and also seeking purpose and spiritual guidance from spiritual leaders.


Holbrook, T., Galarneau, M., Dye, J., Quinn, K., & Dougherty, A. (2010). Morphine Use after Combat Injury in Iraq and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. New England Journal Of Medicine, 362(2), 110-117. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa0903326

For Military Treatment Professionals. (2019). Retrieved from

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (US). Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2014. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 57.) Chapter 3, Understanding the Impact of Trauma. Available from:

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – Symptoms and causes. (2018). Retrieved from

Coming To America Movie Review

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Coming To America Movie Review

Coming to America is a movie written by Barry W Blaustein and David Sheffield. Craig Brewer directs the movie, and it is a 1988 American romantic comedy. It is created by Eddie Murphy, who is also a star in the movie. He casts as prince Akeem, the soon-to-be king of Zamunda. The main cast includes Eddie Murphy as Prince Akeem, Arsenio Hall as Semmi , servant to the prince. A friend to the prince, Shari Headley as Lisa MacDowell, is Akeem’s love interest, James earl Jones as King Jaffe Joffer, Akeem madge Sinclair as queen Deleon Joffer, John Amos as Cleo McDowell Lisa’s father, and Pauls bates as Oha, a royal servant.

Discontented with his pampered life, an African prince decides to move to America to find his wife. It is on his 21st birthday that a wife is selected for him. Unfortunately, he is not pleased with his wife to be since he would love to have a wife who will love him for who he is and a wife who will share with his knowledge, not one who will follow all of his commands without questioning. He moves to America’s poorest area, and he lives as a working-class man. This is an indication of the current situation when people want to change their environment and move on to a new phase of life whereby they feel better and fresh to start a new life.

On his first days of searching, he is not contented with the women he meets. He claims that they all have a severe emotional problem; therefore, he asks an older man at the barbershop, Mr. Clarence, where they can find a nice woman. They go to the black awareness rally where Lisa catches the eye of Akeem. Akeem gets a job at the McDowell so that he could get to know Lisa better. Once Lisa accepts him, the king travels to America by the word of Semi and informs Lisa that Akeem is to marry someone else. On his wedding day, Akeem is surprised to find his bride is Lisa. All this is to help us understand the concept of love and how it is always a challenge to many people. In conclusion, therefore, this movie reflects the struggles a person gets in their lives and how different people deal with them. It also brings us to the face of the complicated issue of love.

Works cited

Landis, John, et al. “Coming to America.” IMDb, 29 June 1988, Accessed 16 Mar. 2021.


Insert Name

University of Maryland University Campus

Mass Communications and Media Studies

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Insert Date

Social media has taken the front seat to the various means of media communication in an industry that is constantly evolving due to the fast-paced technology industry. Society is heavily influenced my information they gather through these channels when it comes to real-world news items, celebrity news, or as consumers. These media channels have opened a whole new world to marketers and businesses in ways to share their messages. Due to this growth, there has been an increase in the many theories that are being studied on the effects that media has on its society, culture, and audience. The articles below helped increase my understanding of media on a psychological level. What is the core purpose behind media outlets such as Twitter or Facebook? What are businesses hoping to accomplish by having a strong social media presence? The various studies help the readers understand the influences that mass media has on a person’s lifestyle and daily habits.

Cavender, Kurt. “Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice.” Cultural Studies (2013): p656-p659.

Author Kurt Cavender shares the views of various researchers who have studied the effects that different social media channels have on its audience. Furthermore, rather than asking how Facebook or Twitter are being used, one researcher (Bruno Latour) wants to understand what habits are formed because of these social media channels and the influence they have on our day-to-day productivity. There are many theories discussed such as; object-oriented media theories, system-oriented media theories, and a new theory introduced by Latour known as actor-network theory (ANT). Latour introduced ANT as “a method for following the circulation across space of people and objects as actors make up their worlds”. The main takeaway is that “social practice occupies an intersection between the semiotic and the material, that the movements of actors within media have both symbolic value and material implications in society.” Media and its traditional term is evolving which is highlighted in the journal article to help readers understand the impact of media and society.

Saat, Rafeah, Selamat, Mohamad. “The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Information Richness on Trust.” Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting Vol. 8 No. 3 (2014): p67-p81.

The authors of this study set out to test the effects that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has on the success of a business. This concept “describes the relationship between company and society.” The article focuses on how a new culture of communicating has been created through the internet which allows companies to share their CSR message with society. The authors designed a study to further understand the benefits of CSR through the Media Richness Theory (MRT), where companies can share their messaging through this avenue. The study is designed to help readers understand if sharing CSR through social media channels results in sales or if consumers become skeptical of the company’s mission and building trust in consumers. The study helps us understand how audiences receive and interpret messages through media.

Bechmann, Gotthard, Stehr, Nico. “Niklas Luhmann’s Theory of Mass Media.” Society Vol. 48 Issue 2 (2011): p142-p147.

In this paper, the authors study Niklas Luhmann’s theory of mass media and its true reality. Originally, Luhmann set out to prove the public’s suspicion of mass media as the basis of his research but shifted his beliefs as he got further into his research. The authors highlight that Luhmann’s thoughts about mass media is that they “do not present an image of a reality that they have distinguished but rather they themselves create the reality which they communicate daily as news, reports, advertising.” But this reality is what Luhmann refers to as “manufactured reality” that is circulated selectively by mass media. Further on, Luhmann widens his research to view mass media communication from the end users point of view to better understand the effects of mass media on our culture.

Come back from Car Accident

Come back from Car Accident

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Report submitted to:

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Introduction with theme

32645358851265450000We have so many tragedies and misfortunes happening in our lives, some of which are life changing. I can recall clearly how my friends’ life, Frank, has changed after he had a car accident on his trip to Chicago. His explanation is still clear and the marks visible. This essays discuss the comeback from Frank’s accident, how the accident happened, kind of surgery, healing period and how friends stood by him all the way long. It explains the impacts of the accident in his personal life and relations with others.

Accident and kind of surgery

It was a standout amongst the most alarming days of his life, the day of Frank’s car accident. In his explanation Frank details, the events that followed in that chilly Monday morning on his trip to Chicago. The tragedy started when an approaching track swayed from one side of the road to the other. The various attempts to escape by Frank was in vain. The track had hit Frank’s car causing an accident. What frank can recall is that he was found between frosty soil and the hot metal of the car breaking his left leg and dislocated his jaw bone. The police found him unconscious and rushed him to the hospital. He underwent knee-surgery and jaw-born relocation. Frank was lucky that he had other minor bruises in other parts of the body, but they got treated very fast.

Healing period that he had to walk again

According to Frank, it was not clear to him how he became unconscious and rushed to hospital. The family members how heard what happened had ran to the hospital. Other friends and relatives also ran to the Hospital. The Doctor at the Hospital worked round the clock to help Frank recover very fast. The support of the family members and friends was also of great importance. Frank was hospitalized for a period of three weeks after which he was discharged.

Friend take him out of Hospital and encourage him to walk

Friend and family members have been close to Frank all the way long. The day he was discharged, he got escorted back to his house by friends and family members. The family and friends have tried encourage him to walk again and they were next to him every step in his life. The support, encouragements, being there for him have calmed him and strengthened him. After another two weeks, Frank has started walking and moving on with his daily life. Though the marks of the stitches in his knee is still a reminder of that fateful Monday, Frank has recovered fully.


I now acknowledge how valuable life truly is, and that it can be taken away in a flash or in a moment. I now comprehend why my father cautioned me to abstain from driving on specific streets to avoid bringing down the danger of having an accident. One little accident can bring about a change in one’s entire life. Frank will always remember that minute when he was lying on the ground and the events in Hospital. This has been a learning curve for both Frank family members and friends.

Coming to an End The Weekend

Coming to an End: The Weekend

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Coming to an End: The Weekend

After extensive research and examination of the Weeknd’s music, lyrics, styles, over comings and life hardship, I have found myself to be extremely well aware of every aspect of his life (that I could get my hands on). The Rhythm and Blues famous artist is hugely inspirational in consideration of his humble background to where he is now regardless of the hardships he underwent through as he was growing up. Also, proving himself as a legend in the music industry was not that easy due to his race and the fact that his family did not have the capability of supporting him. As a tolerant, the Weeknd does not only inspire through the touching music and lyrics but also through supporting the marginalized racial communities. In this paper, the issue of racism is discussed in a more significant context on how it has significantly affected the Weeknd’s life and shaping him to who he is now in the music field.

The Weeknd also was known as Abel Tesfaye was born at Toronto in Canada by his parents Makkonen and Samra who were Ethiopian immigrants. When growing up, there was a challenge regarding his race, his voice and the family’s poverty level considering the community was racial biased. Due to his race and color, the Weeknd faced bullying and segregation in high school which made him abandon his learning at the age of seventeen. The legend takes this challenge as an inspiration and gets the idea of majoring in music as a way of spreading togetherness, giving him someone to talk to that no one wants to hear and a theme to talk about that others did not want to listen about it. The talent in him has been significant to people’s life nevertheless his race which he belongs (Eells, page 12). His fans would have disliked his appearance, but the power of music speaks making the get in touch with his art.

In consideration of the Weeknd’s music, the issue of racism enhanced a significant impact. The facts that he has faced in live acts as an experience and motivation stimulator as there is the urge to change the way of taking things among the society. The racist learns from the art that all people have equal rights and every person has different capabilities which are all constructive if well natured regardless of the ethnicity. The positivity and encouragement that the Weeknd got from the people who looked down on him have enabled him to acquire many trophies more than a hundred awards in the music industry. The uniqueness equips the artist many precious opportunities in the entertainment field not only performing and encouraging fans but also enhancing perfection of other artists work. For instance, he has produced a variety of songs in the soundtrack of various favorite movies such as The Hunger Game among many others (Kumru, page 20).

It is awkward to come across a Rhythm and Blues artist addressing social issues affecting the society such as rape and race segregation, but the Weeknd do this correctly. Many of other artists majors in making allusions to drugs, violence, and alcohol, use of pejorative language and the humiliating of people women in particular. On the other side, the Weeknd makes take a positive perspective of the mentioned above matters and relate them to the happenings in society to bring a positive impact and social-economic development. The artist has diversification in his physical and actual being, and he is oriented in his capabilities. In the today’s world, there is racism, and a pessimistic character will not survive in the competition as Abel did. One can just say that the fact of Abel being an Ethiopian disadvantaged him on achieving his objectives in the music industry which is not the case. The Weeknd did not and is not at any time looking back to give this mentality an opportunity to draw him back, and he believes in the capability of doing even more than anyone expects in the music industry.

The issue of racism is evident even today and the Weeknd takes it as a degrading matter in that renders society development by bringing enmity between the American people. It hurts Abel to the extent that made him address the issue in public. The specific issue he talked about regards the police brutality when dealing with blacks. The artist did not have interest in politics, but it was inevitable to expose the issue according to him as it is touching and against human rights and justice. He broke up the silence that the police unfairly treat the blacks after the recent shootings. Furthermore, the Weeknd has kept the legacy of donating two hundred and fifty thousand dollars to the Black Lives Matter Network (Wagstaff, page 6). The organization deals with facilitating freedom and justice to the black people living in North America, and it has gained popularity after challenging police treatment to the minorities.

As discussed above, the Weeknd is a hero who is passionate in the music industry and has the capability of coming up with racism crisis. It is a lesson and urges to the minority communities and people coming from a humble background who sees like there is no future ahead to have a positive perspective of working towards the targeted objectives. Racism is an excellent society back draw that has to be dealt with to ensure equality and justice in the country. Abel has proved it that no matter how hard situation that one goes through seems to be, at the end there is victory after achieving the expected goals.


Eells, Josh. “Sex, Drugs and R&B: Inside the Weeknd’s Dark Twisted

Fantasy.” Rolling Stone. 2015. Web. 28 Oct. 2017.

Kumru, S. “Category: Slang and Language Subcultures.”

“The Weeknd in Washington –” Macleansca. 2016. Web. 30 Oct. 2017

Vozick-Levinson, Simon. “Ready For The Weeknd.” Rolling Stone 1243

(2015): 15. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 30 Oct. 2017.

Wagstaff. Keith. “10 Things You Should Know About the Weeknd.” GQ. 2015. Web. 30

Oct. 2017.

Combating the Negative Impacts of Covid-19

Combating the Negative Impacts of Covid-19





The onset of the Covid-19 pandemic shook all aspects of life. Most countries were forced to adopt strict and harsh policies to control the spread of the virus and protect people’s health. Local and international movements were restricted altogether as part of the initiative. For this reason, many people lost their jobs and source of income. Approximately 3.3 billion workforce globally lost their livelihoods due to the pandemic (Stoecklin et al., 2020). The state issued a directive requiring the public to stay home to minimize physical contact among individuals. It was a tough time for most individuals because besides losing jobs, they lived in uncertainty and the death tolls linked to the virus kept increasing by the day. Most people who succumbed to Covid-19 were the senior members of society and individuals with chronic underlying diseases like heart problems, high blood pressure, kidneys problems, and diabetes. Various agencies were established and invested in the research and development of a vaccine to save people’s lives now that the deaths increased dramatically. This paper will discuss the role of agencies in facilitating vaccinations of the virus and in combating the adverse effects of the Covid-19 pandemic

The economic and social disruptions caused by the pandemic threatened to put a large section of the population below the poverty line worldwide. It was undeniable that the pandemic was beyond a health crisis since it caused an imbalance in all country sectors. The financial crisis dues to the drastic decrease in the labor force have made it challenging for both the government and the public to meet financial requirements (Ma & Miller, 2021). The government was forced to channel more of its resources and funds towards mitigating the effects of the pandemic, minimizing the spread, and eventually developing a long-term solution that would see people lead everyday lives. This aspect strained the country’s financial position and made it challenging to balance combating the effects of covid-19 and other social amenities necessary for the public. As different brands of the covid-19 vaccine are mandated, controversies tension grew among populations worldwide. Individuals against the covid-19 jab term it as a violation of human rights. Countries like Canada have protested against the vaccine meant to keep people safe and restore normalcy. Large and stable companies in the market authorized their employees to get vaccinated before reporting to work. Consequently, workers in different occupational fields took to the streets to protest against the private-sector mandates

Covid-19 has become the most prominent global crisis for a long time for the government and corporations. The agency has prioritized the economic and health emergencies resulting from covid-19. Programs and projects have been rearranged in the agency’s portfolio such that the pandemic receives adequate attention and funding. The main concerns addressed by the agency during the pandemic are food security, public health, the labor force, and the safety of employees in their respective places of work (Rume & Islam, 2020). More resources and funds have been channeled into the healthcare system to combat the effects of the pandemic. Coronavirus spreads very fast because it is transmitted through physical contact. The increased cases require health facilities to be fully equipped with items like oxygen tanks and beds and be ready for patients. The high rate of Coronavirus infection is overwhelming to medical practitioners since the ratio of doctors to patients is disproportionate (García-Sánchez et al., 2020). There is a need to absorb more medical practitioners into the labor force to reduce the workload. Additionally, the funds channeled to the healthcare systems are used to buy personal protective gear for medical practitioners because they are exposed to people with the virus all the time.

Furthermore, the offset of the pandemic threatened food security in most countries because limited movement affects productivity. The agency allocated funds to provide food for various families in the country. Most people lost their jobs which is their source of income. As a result, most families experienced financial strain due to limited resources. This initiative helped public members to sustain themselves until the government responded or issued a directive of the next move.

The agency’s CEO plays a vital role because they foresee projects and ensure that they are implemented accordingly to keep the people safe and control the spread of the pandemic (Stoecklin et al., 2020). As the CEO, one should be at the frontline in fighting against the virus by creating awareness of covid-19, transmission channels, and the measures to take at an individual and community level. Additionally, the CEO needs to follow up on funds allocation to different departments to ensure that the funds are distributed evenly and appropriately to maximize a positive outcome.


It is undeniable that Covid-19 disrupted operations and normal daily activities for the population across the world. The pandemic was also an eye-opener to the loopholes in the healthcare sector and other sectors in the country. The vulnerable groups in society were adversely affected by the pandemic. Their vulnerability made them an easy target for the virus hence recording the most cases and death tolls. It is imperative that they receive special treatment and care during the pandemic to restore their health and keep them safe. Therefore, society needs to portray global solidarity and support vulnerable groups.


García-Sánchez, I. M., & García-Sánchez, A. (2020). Corporate social responsibility during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(4), 126.

Ma, H., & Miller, C. H. (2021). The effects of agency assignment and reference point on responses to COVID-19 messages. Health Communication, 36(1), 59-73.

Rume, T., & Islam, S. D. U. (2020). Environmental effects of COVID-19 pandemic and potential strategies of sustainability. Heliyon, 6(9), e04965.

Stoecklin, S. B., Rolland, P., Silue, Y., Mailles, A., Campese, C., Simondon, A., … & Levy-Bruhl, D. (2020). First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in France: surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(6), 2000094.

Combined Research Paper Draft

Combined Research Paper Draft

The difficulty Paper

Gee talks about secondary discourse, where he defines it as the process where an individual acquires other skills in order to fit into a given group of people. He describes that we all have the primary discourse which we gain at our early childhood days while still at home. Mostly these primary discourses are dependent on the family members. These family members are the one who teaches us how to interact with the immediate environment we live in at that early stage in life. The most confusing part about Gee under his article is that he does not articulate how we need to gain these secondary discourses. We are also not in a position to clearly explain or identify these secondary discourses.

     Does associating a lot with other people improve our secondary discourse? Since secondary discourse is acquired from the as meet new people, it is true to conclude that our company and the time we spend we other people improve the way they perceive the world at large. For instance, Gee gives as a detailed example of how certain had to learn more skills and techniques on how to play softball. She was huge hence not fit to play the game at a competitive level. Her case was very simple; she was only supposed to gain confidence in order to help her be included in the team. Her interaction with friends helped her gain this confidence.

     Our company affects the way we associate or view the world in general. Like the say goes, ‘Birds of same feathers fly together.’ We tend to copy and adopt some behaviors and characters from those surrounding us. However, our primary discourse determines how we will approach the secondary discourse. Having an excellent primary discourse will attract the right kind of people in some one’s life. People will be pulled by the way we behavior them, and hence our primary discourse determines the type of people we would attract.

     Personally, I think the secondary discourse also attracts a certain character in the primary discourse. A group of persons that might be having the best secondary discourse are likely to attract new members whom they feel van blend in with their characters and mode of doing things. It is; therefore, true to suggest that secondary discourse and primary discourse are closely related.

     People tend to join groups that can benefit them, and again, any group would also recruit member whom they think they can help them in progressing positively. Having deeply analyses both primary and secondary discourse it is, therefore, clear to conclude that in order for one to clearly understand one of these aspects, they need to be well aware of the both of them i.e., having an explicit knowledge on primary discourse would help in understanding more about the secondary discourse.

Research Proposal

The context of the Research The aboriginals in Australia are considered as some of the indigenous people in thecountry. The population of the Aboriginals is present both in the mainland and the numerousislands such as Tasmania, Fraser, and Groote. Even though the name is considered offensive andoutdated, it is still used in various contexts, including academic works. As it stands, thecommunity of aboriginals is considered to be faced with several social issues. Among the mostprofound and observable challenges facing the population is a massive consumption of alcoholas well as drug abuse. The most worrying trend about the community is the tendency of illiteracycharacterized by significant school dropouts and failure to attain the educational qualifications bya number of them. Thus, the research context is on the Aboriginals and the social challenges mostof their people undergo in their everyday activities and operations.

Participants and SiteThe participants in this research are the Aboriginals in Queensland. According to mydesktop research, I established that approximately 68% of the aboriginal tribes live inQueensland, Victoria, and New South Wales. Thus, I settled in Queensland as it has the people intheir large numbers. In the year 2016, the total number of Aboriginals in Queensland was 26,553.However, for the case of my study, the population targeted will be 50 people, though spreadacross the town. The people of interest in my group are the ones with addiction problems andhigh alcohol consumption. Finding them will call that I visit the drinking joints and somebackstreets within their residences. Before accessing the place, I will seek permission from theauthorities and ask for the guide from the community members, preferably the elders. 

Plan for data collection and analysis The process of data collection will take the primary methods of information acquisition.There will be an observation of the group of interest and the interview. The process willcommence through the performance of surveillance in which the survey will be done to thepeople within the drinking joints. The method of the study will take two days, preferablyweekends. Note-taking strategy for the data collection process is the outline in which there isanticipation that the notes are easy to read. Interviews are included in the data collection processin which the 50 selected people within the group are taken through the interview process. Thechoice of what to include in the interview included the frequency of alcohol consumption andwhether the interviewee is currently abusing the drug. The thread which will be followed in thiscase is IMRAD entailing introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. The thread presentedherein is informed by the fact that I want the research to be professional and easy to follow aswell as the logical flow of information       


Even though this research will be marked with the highest level of fairness andprofessionalism, some aspects might intersect the data with my perspective. Sincerely, myattitude and view will be informed by elements of history in which the indigenous people arejudged. Even though I am mindful of the fact that people are biased in judging or perceiving theindigenous aboriginals, it is precise that the same is not likely to form part of the activity of datacollection and research as a whole. In case I infer that whatever I read about the people is nothappening in reality, I will apply the utmost professionalism in ensuring that I note what I observed and generated the data as I said them in the interview document. I believe that my position will be informed with the reality and facts as well as finding within the area of study.

The Research of Blog


In various countries with racial diversity, there is a likelihood that the issue of color is likely to emerge in social settings such as schools and even in the working places. Through the analysis of the article entitled Narrative Analysis of Students’ of Color Experiences at Predominantly White Institutions and the Implications of Support Systems by Stephanie Blake, there is an insight developed to the readers, particularly the popular audience on their opinion regarding racism in the learning institutions. Through the use of Jarrett’s article in the styles of reading, the point, in this case, is to make the audience understand the view of the item on the students of color. 

Analysis of the Research

From the study, it is precise that students of color perceive themselves as minorities who need family and peer support in conforming to the white-dominated schools. The article gives an appropriate response to the question posed by the topic of how the students of color interact with the institution dominated by the whites. Precisely, the students of color cannot conform adequately to the school environment. Thus, they need support from the people who are close to them. Hunter (2016) posits that discrimination in learning institutions in the United States affects the educational performance of African American and Latina students. There are recommendations for the institutions to create more cultural awareness for both the students of color and the white students in the learning institutions to ensure harmony and positive coexistence. Thus, the school orientation should be more intentional in fostering the creation of interactive space for more peaceful operations of both parties. 

As a matter of analysis, it is summarized explicitly that there is a negative perception of the white-dominated schools by the students of color as compared to the former. As can be noted from the analysis, the idea of race has preoccupied the mind, and psychological make up the students in such setups that it is putting them to the state of vulnerability. On the side of students of color, there is created the idea of an inferiority complex when they compare themselves with their white counterparts. It turns out that their perceptions are likely to develop the pitfalls for their learning. On the contrary, the students of the white descents perceive the schools as Better Avenue for education. However, some are not comfortable with the people of color sharing with them social facilities. Nevertheless, it should be realized that the aspects of racial discrimination are the orientation of the individual student.   

Lessons Drawn from the Article

The white-dominated learning institutions have been blamed by the students of color as a result of their experiences in such institutions. The idea of separating students in line with their academic ability is considered one of the factors promoting racial segregation, particularly by African American students. There are claims by the students of color that their skin color prevents them from leading (Modica, 2015). When the statement on racial impediments is connected to the article under review in this discussion, it emerges that most of the students of color perceive the white-dominated schools as more segregated and are responsible for their failures to attain excellence in their school endeavors. A lesson learned from the article is that there is more evidence to ascertain that students of color perceive the school dominated with their white counterparts as an impediment to their success and excellence in all school-related activities. 

Objectives of Writing this Discussion 

The goal of writing an analysis of this article is to develop an insight and understanding of various student factions in the United States and how the racial perceptions paly in the school setups. In essence, there is the point of creating awareness that the issue of racial discrimination is a challenge and that it is likely to affect the operations of students not only of color but even of the white descents. As noted in this case, there are students of color who are not feeling comfortable in the white-dominated school to the extent that they need the help of their closest associates to conform to the settings of the learning environment. From the various reviews connected to the presentations and articles presented, there is realized the negativity some students of color have developed in the school dominated by the white students. Some believe that through the segregation of students according to their academic abilities, they are not likely to excel in their academic endeavors. Therefore, it can be concluded that through the views of the students of color, it is realized there is poor development of the same

Fieldwork Report


There were interview exercises conducted in which the people of Maori were asked about how they perceive visitors in their ceremonies. From the study carried out, there was a lot of information gathered in terms of the practices carried out among the people in my case. The population in consideration for the study was the people of Maori. The main point of attention was on how they perceive the visitors in their communities. In particular, there was concern about how visitors are treated in this community. From the observation, it was realized that the people of Maori are more involved in ceremonies in which they welcome visitors through songs and ceremonial dances. As could be achieved, people welcome visitors with threatening incarnations to test their brevity. Upon confirming the brevity of the visitor, there is the point in which they give the visitor seat to take part in their traditional ceremonies.  


From the interviews conducted, it was learned that the majority of Maori people are welcoming to visitors in their ceremonies. Specifically, from the presentation data, it was clear that approximately 70% of the entire population interviewed. However, about 20% stated that they were not comfortable with the visitors as they are not trustworthy. Approximately 10% of the people reported that they are not sure of whether they are welcoming to the visitors or not. In giving the reason for the perception of the visitors, the main reason for the 20% decline the issue of visitors; they pointed untrustworthiness as the main reason for their decisions making process.   

Interpretation of data

In general conclusion, it can be asserted that the majority of the Maori people are welcoming. On the same note, it was clear that the people of the community value the issue of trust as the main reason for their choice of visitors. Also, there is the aspect of some people (10%) not giving their verdict about the visitors in which it can be interpreted that they value secrecy and confidentiality in treating strangers. It can be pointed out that the issue of the ceremony gives the best avenue to get observations about the Maori people and their perceptions about visitors. However, in getting a valid response, the interview must be conducted on individual members of the community in which they give their verdict without consideration to other factors like the judgment from other members of the community.       

Framing of discourse community

The idea of is discourse community is one of the most sorted after concept in explaining the shared values and beliefs about a given group of people in a particular community or a society in general. The existence and practices of Maori people is a clear definition of the discourse community at play. The people of Maori identify with the history of New Zealand as one of the indigenous inhabitants of the Oceania nation. The most striking feature of this community is their uniqueness, as observed in their culture and beliefs, which is derived from a distinct orientation. It becomes necessary that the people are looked at and studies in a comprehensive approach to extract the essential features of the community. As opposed to modern societies and communities, the people of Maori are more concerned with their abilities to conserve their traditional acquired communication skills and practices.    


From the studies conducted, and the findings obtained, the Maori people are welcoming to strangers. Even though the review was more inclined and confined to a specific function of the community, it can still be used to reflect on the general perspective of the community to strangers. From the literature review, it could be concluded that the people of the Maori descents are all welcoming and that it is challenging to find one who is not fully into the culture and activities of the community. 

However, from the study, it could be registered that there are people of the Maori descents who debunk the myth of the people being all welcoming. The statistical data presented in the findings section is a clear indication that the people, just like other societies in various parts of the world, embrace diversity in opinion. A close look at the situation reveals an exciting idea about the community in which there are known unique communication codes and acceptable ways of interaction, which is known only to the people of the Maori society. As stated, the community has its unique language, which they have kept dear ever since they were known to the people of the modern world. 

College of Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities

College of Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities

Department of Sociology & Criminal Justice

CCJ 5934-001


Contemporary Issues in Criminal Justice

B. L. PERRY 200

W 5:45 PM-8:15 PM

Ray Von Robertson, Ph.D.

Associate Professor and Interim chairperson of Sociology & Criminal Justice

Office Location: 403 Perry Paige; Office Phone: (850) 561-3316; Email:; Office Hours: T & TH 11:00AM -1:00PM by Appt.


Robertson, Ray Von, & Chaney, Cassandra. (2019). Police use of excessive force against African Americans: Intellectual antecedents and community perceptions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Course Description: This course uses critical race theory as an intellectual underpinning for a comprehensive examination of contemporary issues in criminal justice. In this course we will examine the contemporary impact of myriad criminal justice issues..

Course Objectives:

This course will emphasize the development of the following:

(1) Knowledge of the spectrum of academic Criminal Justice.

(2) A critical understanding of criminal justice in contemporary society.

(3) The relevance of race, gender, and class in the criminal justice system.


Week 1 (1/6—1/10)-Course Introduction

Courts, Law, & Jurisprudence

Week 2 (1/13-1/17) – The Philosophical & Ideological underpinnings of Corrections; Jurisprudence The Sociable Science

Week 3 (1/20-1/24) – More Reasons why Jurisprudence is not legal philosophy; On and On, Over and Over

Week 4 (1/27-1/31)-Putting the Law in its Place; Equal protection and white supremacy


Week 5 (2/3-2/7)-Striking the Right Balance; Sexuality and Sexual Health in Prison

Week 6 (2/10-2/14)-The Use of Restorative practices to reduce prison gang violence;

An Overview of the challenge of prison gangs

Policing and Law Enforcement

Week 7 (2/17-2/21) – Police Brutality and Black Health; Protesting the Police

Week 8 (2/24-2/28)-Armed and Dangersous; Black on Blue POST MIDTERM ON BLACKBOARD

Week 9 (3/2-3/6)-Robertson & Chaney Ch.1; Robertson & Chaney Ch. 2

Week 10 (3/9-3/13) – Robertson & Chaney Ch. 3; Robertson & Chaney Ch. 4


Week 12 (3/23-3/27)-Robertson & Chaney Ch. 5; Robertson & Chaney Conclusion

Juvenile delinquency

Week 13 (3/30-4/3)-Perceived Need and receipt of Behavioral Health Services; Implementing Trauma-informed practice

Week 14 (4/6-4/10)-Youth and Delinquency; Perceptions of Black Male Disproportionality (Me) POST FINAL ON BLACKBOARD

Week 15 (4/13-4/17)-Catch up!!

Week 16 (4/20-4/24)-Catch up!!

Week 17 (4/27-5/1)-UPLOAD FINAL EXAM TO BLACKBOARD BY 10 PM ON 4/29.

Grading Scale: 2tests @ 100 pts each; 1 Chapter Critique @ 100 points; 4 Article Presentations @ 15 points each.


A = 90% – 100% (324-360 pts)

B = 80% – 89% (288– 359.99 pts)

C = 70% – 79% (252– 287.99 pts)

D = 60%-69% (216– 251.99 pts)




Students will be assigned to facilitate discussions of the weekly assigned readings. This entails briefly summarizing the main points of the readings, outlining the key elements of the reading and any reflections you might want to add such as a news item or example that illustrates an important element of the theory being discussed.

Your presentation should also demonstrate that you are engaging with the readings in a critical manner by considering the strengths and weaknesses of their arguments, policy implications and how they apply to our consideration of real world problems.

When you are assigned to lead a discussion or present a chapter, your written outline/summary should be uploaded into BLACKBOARD under the appropriate assignment category no later than 12:00 PM on Tuesday, the day you will present.

Each student will be required to serve as discussion facilitator four times during the semester.

Weekly Presenter/Discussant Grading Rubric

*Each chapter summary must be 5 pages in length. Additionally, your discussion questions must be at the top of the 6th page and include the page number(s) where the information can be found.*

Discussion facilitators that meet all criteria for the grading categories below will receive the highest points possible at that level. Facilitators that meet some, but not all criteria will receive a score within the point range of the appropriate category.

Each presenter assignment is worth a maximum of 15 points, for a total for 60 possible points on presentation assignments.

Excellent (15 – 14 points)

Discussant demonstrates superior understanding of the assigned readings, substantiated by examples drawn from the text or real-world happenings.

Discussant is insightful, thorough and interesting.

Presentation is polished.

Good (13.9 – 13 points)

Discussant shows a good understanding

Colon Versus Semicolon

Colon Versus Semicolon

Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

Course Name and Code

Professor’s Name


Colon Versus Semicolon

Most common errors when using semicolons and colons include:

Using a semicolon between two independent clauses.

Wrong: After visiting the orphanage, the charity group donated valuable items; they donated food, clothes, and stationery.

Right: After visiting the orphanage, the charity group donated valuable items: they donated food, clothes, and stationery.

Explanation: The rule I applied in revising my work is that a colon is utilized between independent clauses in cases where the second clause explains, summarizes, or provides an example for the first clause. In the example shared above, the second clause explains the first clause; thus, the two clauses should have been separated using a colon, not a semicolon.

Using a colon to introduce a list of items.

Wrong: When I went to the market I bought: oranges, bananas, pineapples, and apples.

Right: When I went to the market, I bought four different types of fruits: oranges, bananas, pineapples, and apples.

Explanation: The rule that I used to revise my work is that a clause that precedes a colon should be an independent clause. According to this rule, a colon cannot be utilized to separate parts of speech that go together. Since, in the example above, I was introducing a list, I should have made the first clause an independent clause.

Introducing quotations with a semicolon after an independent clause.

Wrong: Emily said: “You are the coolest living creature I have met.”

Right: Emily complimented me in a statement: “You are the coolest living creature I have met.”

Explanation: The rule I used to revise my work is that a colon is used to introduce quotations following an independent clause and not a semicolon. In the above example, the first clause is an independent one thus, quotations following this clause should be introduced using a colon.

Collegiate athletics are just as competitive as professional athletics.

Collegiate athletics are just as competitive as professional athletics. Tailor-made training programs are necessary for athletes as they help reduce incidences of injury and improve performance. An effective warm-up protocol is essential in an effective training program. Warm-up exercises prepare an athlete’s cardiovascular and skeletomuscular system for the strain caused by vigorous training and competition.

Long jump athletes require strength, agility, power, and speed to jump as far as possible from the takeoff point. An effective warm-up protocol for long-jump athletes involves exercises such as heel kicks, high knee skips, and sprint drills. To increase the intensity of these exercises, the long jump athlete needs to perform these exercises while wearing weighted vests of 1kg. The first movement in the warm-up protocol is heel kicks. This movement involves rapidly kicking one’s heels towards their buttocks while bending both elbows at ninety degrees. Heel kicks are explosive exercises that work on the hamstring muscles, the glutes, the core muscles, arms, and back. The athlete should do a five-minute set of 10 heel kicks at 30-second intervals. The exercise is done for 30-seconds, and the athlete rests for 30-seconds.

The following exercise is high knee skips. This exercise involves skipping in place while bringing the knees towards the chest. This exercise boosts lower body strength and endurance by targeting the quads, calves, glutes, hip flexors, and hamstrings. The exercise requires one to keep their arms close to the body while bending the elbows at 90 degrees to maintain balance and control over body movement. This movement keeps one’s heart rate up while improving cardiovascular endurance. An athlete should do this exercise at 30-second intervals for five minutes. Sprint drills involve running at top speeds over short distances. Sprints are total-body exercises that work both the upper body muscles and lower body muscles. The exercise primarily targets the quads and works the shoulders, abs, hamstrings, glutes, and hip flexors. The athlete should sprint distances of 100 meters for 10 minutes. The recovery time between each sprint should be 2 minutes.

The exercises highlighted above target upper-body and lower-body muscles. These exercises also help the athlete build endurance, speed, agility, and power. As the exercises work all muscles in the body, they reduce the likelihood of injury while improving performance.